|Enrofloxacin Oral Solution
Contains per ml:
There is high variation of bioavailability after oral administration of enrofloxacin between polygastric and monogastric animals from 10% to 80%. This has a direct consequences on the galenic, oral presentations are reserved for pigs, poultry, calves, and carnivores and only injectable solutions are available for cattle.
Moreover, bioavailability depends on whether the animals are fed or fasted, and of the presence of ion. These interferences can be explained by the formation of a complex between cation and fluoroquinolone which cannot permeate through the digestive barrier. Another consequence of this complex is the influence of the hardness of water notably in poultry farming where the dilution in water is used. But lipophilic compounds in food can enhance oral bioavailability of fluoroquinolone.
In addition to passive diffusion allowed by enrofloxacin lipophilicity, active transporters have also an important role in intestinal absorption. But these transporters are also important to eliminate fluoroquinolones.
The intramuscular bioavailability is 96% with a maximum concentration 3 hours after administration. Intramuscular bioavailability can be enhanced by solid lipophilic nanoparticles, this technic enhances the duration of enrofloxacin in plasma.
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